Natisni vsebino

1. Findings and assessments on the respecting of human rights in Slovenia

Annual Report 1997


The 1997 report of the Human Rights Ombudsman will be published and discussed in a year which is given a special stamp by the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Declaration is an important acknowledgement and confirmation of the equality of all members of the human family, great or small, rich or poor, that derives from their dignity - and regardless of place of birth, situation, colour of skin, sex, language, religious beliefs or political convictions. The Declaration is the basis for a number of documents and mechanisms adopted and established in the second half of the twentieth century at both world and regional levels. The respect and protection of human rights have experienced marked development during this period, although barbarous acts which outrage the conscience of mankind still occur. We have witnessed such acts even in the countries of our near neighbours. It is precisely events of this type that warn us that the respecting of human rights must always be in the forefront of the efforts of those in power in all countries. Slovenia is no exception.

The fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a useful opportunity to examine more closely the extent to which human rights are respected and promoted in our country. The most fitting celebration of the anniversary would be the improvement of conditions in those areas where guaranteed rights are not enjoyed in full and by all, or where there are irregularities and deficiencies. For this reason we are devoting the first part of the ombudsman’s annual report to a review of the human rights situation in Slovenia. The review is mainly based on findings arising from the treatment of complainants, although we also include some findings and assessments from areas in which, though we have not received complaints relating to them, we have in the course of our work become aware of deficiencies and problems. The review covers the basic rights guaranteed by United Nations charters, the European Convention for the protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia.

Some factors which affect the respecting of human rights and the solving of problems

Although certain areas are well regulated and we have successfully overcome numerous problems, it nevertheless seems to us necessary to draw attention to the key factors which show that we cannot be completely satisfied with what has been achieved in the field of respecting human rights and guaranteeing legal security in Slovenia. It is not in fact the function of the ombudsman to present positive achievements, although further on in the report we do mention some positive changes. The greatest cause for concern is that attention needs to be drawn to certain serious problems for the third time in succession:

Legal order is not complete and stable

Of the numerous laws mentioned in last year’s report which in our opinion needed to be passed as soon as possible, only two were passed last year. There is a great deal of legislation which does not conform to the new constitution, and deficiencies revealed in the new laws are not rectified quickly enough.

State bodies operate inefficiently and even unlawfully

In the last three years backlogs have further increased at certain courts, and delays noted are even longer in many places. In administrative procedures we are even noting new breaches of legal deadlines. There are no effective measures for improving the situation.

Identified irregularities are rectified too slowly

The problem is clearly in the determining of priorities since we cannot believe that those responsible are not capable of solving frequently fairly simple problems.

Inadequate informing of the public about government intentions

It is difficult for an individual to form a clear picture of the reasons for and consequences of the government’s actions from announcements and explanations of government intentions and measures introduced. It is difficult for the individual to adapt rationally to the government’s actions. This is all the more true because the provision of public information frequently succumbs to a sensationalist approach where scandals are given precedence over other reports.

Coordination between departments for the solving of problems takes too long

A problem which involves only one department can, with normal cooperation from the people responsible, be resolved in reasonable time. When the coordination of several ministries is necessary, however, this generally involves a long coordination process which is frequently unsuccessful. Sometimes no suitable coordination is reached at all.

The attitude of the state to the individual is frequently inappropriate

Both with regard to respecting his or her dignity and in the provision of complete information and assistance.

There is inadequate care for certain groups which bear the greatest burden of the economic transformation

The long-term unemployed are losing all hope of ever again living from the fruits of their labour.

Some areas still have no effective complaints procedures

Despite warnings, suitable complaints possibilities are being introduced extremely slowly. Where they exist the procedures are frequently inadequate.

State and other bodies have an inadequate sense of proper operation

Even Constitutional Court rulings are failing to be observed within the set deadlines and certain deficiencies persist without apparently exciting any concern. The burden of the lack of order is borne by the individual.

Assessments of the situation and problems in the respecting of human rights

General assessments of the respecting of fundamental human rights and freedoms in Slovenia are good. This does not mean, however, that individual irregularities do not occur and that there are not a number of problems which are in contravention of the stipulations of binding international legal acts and the provisions of the Constitution of Slovenia. Below we list some of these problems with regard to individual human rights or the rights of specially sensitive groups.

Human dignity

The equal dignity of every person demands a respectful attitude to everyone who turns to any representative of state bodies or other statutory authorities. It also dictates the obligation of the state to provide for everyone who cannot do so himself the means of living a life worthy of a human being. A number of other functions derive from these two points. There are still no completely clearly designed criteria for the legal protection of individual dignity in cases of damage to reputation and good name, especially those which are committed in public.

The right to life, freedom and security of person

Although the forms of crime which threaten life and personal security are only increasing modestly, it will be of fundamental importance for the protection of these rights to improve the efficiency of the bodies involved in the prevention, detection and prosecution of criminal activities. At the same time it is essential to ensure the lawfulness of their operation and appropriate control, to prevent the occurrence of restriction of personal freedom and other rights in the name of suppressing crime.

Prohibition of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment

Violations of rights as a result of the overstepping of authority or improper use of authority by the forces of law and order are rare. Nevertheless it is worth devoting even greater attention to the training of police officers for the lawful and professional exercising of their powers. Special attention must be devoted to the treatment of every complaint relating to their unjustified use of force or to any type of torture or degrading treatment. We propose the introduction of periodic exams relating to human rights for police officers and authorised official personnel in prisons. These would be especially useful for personnel taking on more responsible independent functions.

The right to respect of personal and family life and the inviolability of homes and communications

These rights still do not have suitable legal protection. The provisions on permitted encroachments of these rights in the Penal Code have been overturned by the ConstitutionaL Court. At the time of writing, the law on the police has still not been passed and the regulation of the sensitive area of security and intelligence services has evidently come to a complete halt. This means that any control of the legal limiting of these rights is extremely difficult.

Political and civil rights

We have not noted any particular problems in this area. The lack of democratic experience in the past occasionally causes problems and disagreements over the asserting of certain rights from this area, for example with regard to the right of freedom of peaceful assembly and association, the right to vote and the right to direct cooperation in the administering of public affairs.

The right to fair treatment

The main problem is asserting the right of the individual to have his or her rights and liabilities decided on ‘without unnecessary delay’, as stated by the Constitution, and ‘within a reasonable time’, as stated by the European Convention. Cases we are dealing with show that this is the right breached most frequently in Slovenia.

The right to legal protection and to legal remedy

The lengthiness of court procedures and certain administrative procedures, especially complaints procedures, means that to many people effective legal protection is not available in procedures to decide their rights, liabilities or legal interests. The duration of procedures in certain cases actually places people in the same situation they would be in if legal protection was not guaranteed at all. It even happens that because of the lengthiness of the procedure an individual can be deprived of the right that would have been granted to him if the decision had been made within the legal deadline.

The right to cooperate in the administration of public affairs

The basic condition for the implementing of this right is being properly informed of the intentions of legislative and executive bodies and local government bodies, of proposed measures and their content, and on the implementation of plans, laws and guidelines. The approach of those responsible for keeping the public completely informed is still not suitable. It is a long way from the principle of transparency of authority (open government), which is a feature of a civilised society and the first principle of a solid democracy.

The rights of national communities

We have not observed serious problems relating to the respecting of rights of the constitutionally defined national minorities. The reason for this is undoubtedly their direct representation in representative bodies at the national and local level and the provisions on the cooperation of the national communities in decision-making on their rights and position.

The position of the Romany community is considerably poorer, since the law envisaged in the Constitution to regularise the position and special rights of this community has still not been passed.

The right of asylum

The possibility of exercising this right must be more suitably and more completely regulated by law. The current duration of the procedure is unreasonably long and can neither be in the interest of the applicant nor of the country.

The right to express national affiliation

Greater attention will need to be paid to the exercising of the cultural rights of the various groups living in Slovenia, in accordance with their wishes and interests. This is a question of the constitutionally guaranteed individual right of every person to cultivate and express his or her own culture, which he can - if he so wishes - also exercise in the community. Although the state might not be encouraging these efforts, at least it cannot hinder them.

The protection of equality and the respect of racial, religious and political differences

Slovenia is not immune to expressions of racial intolerance and xenophobia. Racial intolerance only reached expression in a few cases in times past, when decisive measures by state bodies probably prevented its spread. Xenophobia is more seriously rooted, something also reflected in the fact that in the past legislative proposals were made which contained elements of ethnic intolerance.

Particularly alarming are occurrences of intolerance directed against Romanies. One of the causes of this, which could be removed, is the legally unregulated position of this community.

A particular problem in Slovenia is the low level of tolerance where differences in religious and other beliefs and the expression of beliefs in general are involved. Education in human rights, which is also stressed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, must to a large extent be directed towards allowance for and acceptance of the difference of others. It is important to actually observe the principle that it is not permissible to do to others what you would not wish to be done to you. Another important educational goal is not to judge the experience of others by our own criteria but instead to try and understand their experience, values and customs.

The rights of foreigners

We draw special attention to the still unregulated status of many inhabitants of Slovenia who before Slovenia gained independence had legally recognised permanent residence in the country. This was taken away from them in a controversial way and they have not managed to obtain any status envisaged by Slovene legislation. To date we have not succeeded in our proposals to resolve this problem. The lack of regulation in this area also has an effect on the promotion of the rights of the child and is frequently at odds with the principle of keeping families together. An expressed willingness to solve the problem should lead to a suitable solution as quickly as possible.

Freedom of movement

We have noted in particular cases where people who were formally foreigners after Slovenia gained independence have not been permitted to enter the country although their family members live here and have Slovene citizenship. It is not possible to appeal against being turned back at the border or having a visa application rejected, and therefore it has not been possible to examine the frequently very inadequate grounds on which entry is refused for defence and security reasons. Some well-known cases were resolved last year.

The rights of the child

The Convention on the Rights of the Child, which Slovenia is bound by, is not observed to a sufficient extent in the direct practice of those bodies that decide on children’s rights and interests. The Convention could be used directly for the protection of children’s rights in numerous procedures in which the applicable legislation does not provide a good basis for taking effective measures. The Convention derives from the rights of the child, which makes it possible for a child to be treated as a person, as a subject of rights and responsibilities.

Judging and establishing what is in the child’s interest is too subjective and therefore arbitrary, since regulations do not provide more detailed guidelines, and the child’s own interest is not taken sufficiently into account, or the child cannot assert it adequately. The legislation also lacks a suitable basis for taking fast and effective measures in cases of abuse, torment or serious neglect of children, and therefore appropriate changes in family legislation are necessary. Social services centres, which carry out a range of functions to do with the protection of children’s interests, also play an inappropriate double role here by simultaneously providing specialist social care and carrying out administrative functions. For this reason too, a reorganisation of social care is necessary, as is the introduction of a suitable form of representation and intercession for children.

Unfortunately children are also among the victims of lengthy and inefficient procedures, especially in relation to decisions on contact with a parent whom the child does not live with, and the payment of maintenance. Our proposal for the establishment of a maintenance fund is therefore grounded mainly in concern for the interests of the child in accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

The rights of women - equality of the sexes

Despite their guaranteed equality women are exposed to certain disproportionate burdens, particularly as regards material security, bringing up children, and other family obligations. As regards employment, they are exposed to numerous pressures which are difficult to prove, including pressure not to have children. There is no legal protection whatsoever here. Reports of concealed discrimination in employment are not infrequent.

The sensitivity and response of society to concealed violence to women in the family is inadequate despite established institutional and volunteer mechanisms.

Provisions for women who are victims of violence are not complete, since existing shelters and mothers’ homes do not satisfy needs either in terms of capacity or regional distribution. There is also too little help for women trying to re-establish their independence after seeking help to escape from violence. A major contribution here is the lengthiness of procedures relating to the division of joint property, which is most often to the detriment of the woman, who as the weaker partner is generally unable to retain even a part of the property. Even if former partners have the possibility of housing available which would enable both to live in peace, the woman frequently has to find unsuitable emergency solutions while awaiting the decision of the court.

As mothers, women also bear the greatest share of the burden arising from the inefficiencies in the procedure for claiming maintenance.

It is clear that women are very badly represented in responsible positions in politics, the economy and public services, even though it is precisely the level of representation in such positions that is one of the indicators of the actual equality of women and men. Improving the situation is a complicated process which can only be based on an abandoning of stereotypes relating to the division of roles and work between the sexes.

The rights of invalids

The rights of invalids are not completely or uniformly regulated. This causes among different categories a feeling of unjustified discrimination. Stimulation of an improvement in the social atmosphere is necessary. This should enable the removal of all obstacles (and not just physical obstacles relating to access) which prevent invalids from taking an equal part in life in accordance with their capabilities and interests. Moves towards a market economy have limited employment possibilities, which means a need to find more suitable approaches to the education and training of certain categories of invalids.

The right to the peaceful enjoyment of property

In the processes of denationalisation, by means of which the country is correcting former suppression of this right, legal deadlines are being exceeded. This creates a situation where individuals to whom by law formerly confiscated property should be returned are unable to enjoy it because of the unlawfulness of this procedure.

The protection of this right is inadequate in numerous cases, among other reasons because of the lengthiness of court procedures for the protection of rights deriving from ownership.

The rights of employees

The protection of employees is inadequate because of legislation which is not fully adapted to changes in economic and political conditions and because of the time it takes to exercise legal protection of rights. The protection of rights is a long process and, particularly as regards the unlawful termination of employment, fails to fulfil its purpose. Inadequate regulation aggravates or even makes impossible the protection of employees’ rights guaranteed by international acts and domestic regulations.

* * *

The warnings above, which relate to inadequacies and problems, are not exhaustive since they are mainly based on direct work done during the processing of complaints. Nevertheless they can be a starting point for overcoming some of the most urgent problems relating to the respecting of human rights and the guaranteed legal security of the citizens and other inhabitants of Slovenia.

Letno poročilo 1997 - Poglavje 1


Poročilo varuha človekovih pravic za leto 1997 prihaja v javnost in obravnavo v letu, ki mu daje poseben pečat petdesetletnica splošne deklaracije človekovih pravic. Deklaracija pomeni priznanje in potrditev enakosti vseh članov človeške družine, najsi bodo veliki ali majhni, bogati ali revni, izhajajoč iz njihovega dostojanstva - ne glede na kraj rojstva, položaj, barvo kože, spol, jezik, veroizpoved ali politično usmeritev. Deklaracija je temelj številnim aktom in mehanizmom, ki so bili sprejeti in vzpostavljeni v drugi polovici dvajsetega stoletja na svetovni in regionalni ravni. Spoštovanje in varovanje človekovih pravic je v tem času doživelo občuten razvoj, čeprav se še vedno dogajajo barbarska dejanja, žaljiva za človeško vest. Takim dejanjem smo bili priča celo v naši bližnji soseščini. Ravno dogajanja te vrste opozarjajo, da mora biti spoštovanje človekovih pravic ves čas v ospredju prizadevanj odgovornih v vseh državah, seveda tudi v Sloveniji.

Petdesetletnica splošne deklaracije človekovih pravic je priložnost, ko velja temeljiteje pregledati, v kolikšni meri se v naši državi spoštujejo in uveljavljajo človekove pravice. Najboljša proslava obletnice pa je izboljšanje razmer na tistih področjih, kjer zagotovljene pravice niso uveljavljene v celoti in za vse ali kjer prihaja do nepravilnosti in pomanjkljivosti. Zato prvi del letnega poročila varuha namenjamo pregledu položaja na področju človekovih pravic v Sloveniji. Pri tem izhajamo predvsem iz ugotovitev ob obravnavi pobud, vključujemo pa tudi ugotovitve in ocene s področij, s katerih ne prejemamo pobud, vendar smo na njih pri svojem delu zaznali pomanjkljivosti in probleme. Pregled vsebuje temeljne pravice, zagotovljene z akti Organizacije združenih narodov, evropsko konvencijo o človekovih pravicah in temeljnih svoboščinah ter z ustavo Republike Slovenije.

Nekaj dejavnikov, ki vplivajo na spoštovanje človekovih pravic in razreševanje problemov:

Ob dobri urejenosti nekaterih področij in uspešnem premagovanju številnih problemov se nam zdi potrebno opozoriti na ključne dejavnike, ki kažejo, da z doseženim na področju spoštovanja človekovih pravic in zagotavljanja pravne varnosti v naši državi ne moremo biti popolnoma zadovoljni. Naloga varuha pač ni v tem, da prikazuje pozitivne dosežke, čeprav v nadaljevanju poročila omenjamo tudi nekatere pozitivne premike. Najbolj skrb zbujajoče je, da je treba na nekatere resne probleme opozarjati že tretjič zapored:

  • pravni red ni popoln in stabilen: od številnih zakonov, navedenih v lanskem poročilu, ki bi jih bilo po našem mnenju treba čimprej sprejeti, sta bila lani sprejeta le dva; veliko je še z novo ustavo neusklajene zakonodaje, odkrite pomanjkljivosti novih zakonov pa niso odpravljene v primernem času
  • državni organi delujejo neučinkovito in celo nezakonito: v zadnjih treh letih so se še povečali zaostanki na nekaterih sodiščih, opaženi zaostanki so marsikje še daljši, v upravnih postopkih pa opažamo celo nove primere kršitev zakonskih rokov; učinkovitih ukrepov za izboljšanje položaja ni
  • odkrite nepravilnosti se prepočasi odpravljajo: problem je očitno v določanju prednosti, saj ni mogoče verjeti, da odgovorni niso sposobni razrešiti pogosto precej preprostega problema
  • obveščanje javnosti o vladnih namerah je pomanjkljivo: posameznik si iz obvestil in pojasnil o vladnih namerah in uveljavljenih ukrepih težko ustvari jasno sliko o razlogih in posledicah vladnega ravnanja in se mu težko racionalno prilagaja; to velja toliko bolj, ker javno obveščanje pogosto podlega senzacionalističnemu pristopu, pri katerem afere prednjačijo pred drugimi sporočili
  • usklajevanje med resorji za rešitev problemov je predolgo: problem, ki zadeva le en resor, je ob normalni zavzetosti odgovornih mogoče odpraviti v primernem času; ko pa je potrebna uskladitev več ministrstev, praviloma prihaja do dolgotrajnega usklajevanja, pogosto brez uspeha; včasih pa do ustreznega usklajevanja sploh ne pride
  • odnos države do posameznika je pogosto neprimeren - tako glede spoštovanja njegovega dostojanstva kot glede popolnega obveščanja in pomoči
  • pomanjkljiva je skrb za nekatere skupine, ki nosijo največje breme gospodarske preobrazbe: dolgotrajno brezposelni izgubljajo vsako upanje, da bi še kdaj lahko živeli od sadov svojega dela
  • učinkovitih pritožbenih poti na številnih področjih še vedno ni: kljub opozorilom se zelo počasi uvajajo ustrezne pritožbene možnosti, kjer pa obstajajo, so postopki pogosto pomanjkljivi
  • pomanjkljiv je smisel za urejeno delovanje državnih in drugih organov: celo odločbe ustavnega sodišča niso upoštevane v postavljenih rokih, nekatere pomanjkljivosti brez vznemirjenja ohranjamo pri življenju; breme neurejenosti pa nosi posameznik.

Ocene o položaju in problemih pri spoštovanju človekovih pravic

Splošne ocene o spoštovanju temeljnih človekovih pravic in svoboščin v Sloveniji so dobre. To pa ne pomeni, da ne prihaja do posameznih nepravilnosti in da ne obstajajo številni problemi, ki so v nasprotju z določili zavezujočih mednarodnih pravnih aktov in določbami slovenske ustave. Navajamo nekatere teh problemov glede nekaterih človekovih pravic oziroma pravic posebej občutljivih skupin.

Človekovo dostojanstvo

Enako dostojanstvo vsakega človeka zahteva spoštljiv odnos do vsakogar, ki se obrača na kateregakoli predstavnika državnih ali drugih organov z javnimi pooblastili. Narekuje tudi obveznost države, da vsakomur, ki si tega sam ne more zagotoviti, omogoči človeka vredno preživetje. Iz obojega izhajajo še številne naloge. Enako pa še niso povsem jasno izoblikovana merila sodnega varovanja posameznikovega dostojanstva glede dejanj zoper čast in dobro ime, zlasti tistih, ki so  storjena v javnosti.

Pravica do življenja, svobode in varnosti

Čeprav oblike kriminala, ki ogrožajo življenje in varnost ljudi, le zmerno naraščajo, bo za varovanje teh pravic temeljnega pomena izboljševanje učinkovitosti organov, ki se ukvarjajo s preprečevanjem, odkrivanjem in pregonom kaznivih dejanj. Hkrati pa je nujno skrbeti za zakonitost njihovega delovanja in ustrezen nadzor, da ne bi prihajalo do neupravičenega omejevanja osebne svobode in drugih pravic zaradi zatiranja kriminalitete.

Prepoved mučenja, nečloveškega ali poniževalnega ravnanja in kaznovanja

Kršitve pravic s prekoračitvijo in nepravilno uporabo pooblastil represivnih organov so sicer redke. Kljub temu velja še večjo pozornost posvetiti zlasti izobraževanju policistov za zakonito in strokovno izvajanje pooblastil. Posebna pozornost mora biti posvečena obravnavi vsake pritožbe, ki se nanaša na neupravičeno uporabo sile, kakršnokoli mučenje ali ponižujoče ravnanje. Predlagamo uvedbo občasnih izpitov s področja spoštovanja človekovih pravic za policiste in pooblaščene uradne osebe v zaporih, zlasti ob prevzemu odgovornejših samostojnih nalog.

Pravica do spoštovanja zasebnega in družinskega življenja ter nedotakljivosti stanovanja in komunikacij

Navedene pravice še niso ustrezno zakonsko zaščitene. Določbe o dovoljenih posegih v te pravice v zakonu o kazenskem postopku je ustavno sodišče razveljavilo, zakon o policiji ob nastajanju tega poročila še ni sprejet, očitno pa je povsem zastalo urejanje občutljivega področja varnostno-informativnih služb. Zato je vsak nadzor zakonite omejitve teh pravic izjemno otežen.

Politične in državljanske pravice

Posebnih problemov na tem področju ne opažamo. Pomanjkanje  demokratičnih izkušenj iz preteklosti pa občasno povzroča probleme in nesporazume ob uveljavljanju nekaterih pravic s tega področja, na primer glede pravice do zbiranja in združevanja, volilne pravice in neposrednega sodelovanja pri upravljanju javnih zadev.

Pravica do poštenega obravnavanja

Problem je zlasti uveljavljanje pravice posameznika, da se o njegovih pravicah in dolžnostih odloča brez nepotrebnega odlašanja, kot pravi ustava, oziroma v razumnem roku, kakor določa evropska konvencija. Primeri, ki jih obravnavamo, kažejo, da je ta pravica pri nas najbolj množično kršena.

Pravica do sodnega varstva, do pravnega sredstva

Dolgotrajnost sodnih in nekaterih upravnih, zlasti tudi pritožbenih postopkov, pomeni, da marsikomu ni na voljo učinkovito sodno varstvo v postopkih, v katerih se odloča o njegovih pravicah, dolžnostih ali pravnih interesih. Dolgotrajnost postopkov v nekaterih primerih dejansko pripelje v enak položaj, kot če sodno varstvo sploh ne bi bilo zagotovljeno. Zgodi se celo, da je zaradi dolgotrajnosti postopka posameznik ob pravico, ki bi mu bila priznana, če bi bilo odločeno v zakonitem roku.

Pravica do sodelovanja pri upravljanju javnih zadev

Temeljni pogoj za uresničevanje te pravice je ustrezna obveščenost o namerah zakonodajne in izvršilne oblasti ter nosilcev lokalne samouprave, o predvidenih ukrepih in njihovi vsebini, pa tudi o izvajanju načrtov, zakonov in usmeritev. Pristop pristojnih k celovitemu obveščanju javnosti še vedno ni ustrezen. Je daleč od načela transparentnosti oblasti (open government), ki je civilizacijska pridobitev in prvi pogoj trdne demokracije.

Pravice narodnih skupnosti

V povezavi s spoštovanjem pravic ustavno opredeljenih narodnih skupnosti ne zaznavamo resnejših problemov. Razlog za to je brez dvoma tudi njuna neposredna zastopanost v predstavniških telesih na državniin lokalni ravni in upoštevanje določil o sodelovanju narodnih skupnosti pri odločanju o njihovih pravicah in položaju.

Veliko slabši je položaj romske skupnosti, saj še ni bil sprejet z ustavo predvideni zakon, ki naj ureja položaj in posebne pravice te skupnosti.

Pravica pribežališča

Možnost za uveljavitev te pravice je treba ustrezneje in celoviteje urediti z zakonom. Sedanje trajanje postopka je nerazumno dolgo in ne more biti v interesu niti prosilca niti države.

Pravica do izražanja narodne pripadnosti

Več pozornosti bo treba posvetiti uveljavljanju kulturnih pravic različnih skupin, ki živijo v Sloveniji, seveda skladno z njihovimi željami in interesi. Gre sicer za ustavno zagotovljeno individualno pravico vsakogar, da goji in izraža svojo kulturo, ki pa jo lahko - če to želi - uresničuje tudi v skupnosti. Država takšnih teženj vsaj ne sme ovirati, če jih že ne pospešuje.

Varstvo enakopravnosti in spoštovanje rasne, verske in nazorske različnosti

Slovenija ni imuna pred izrazi rasne nestrpnosti in ksenofobije. Rasna nestrpnost je sicer prišla do izraza le v nekaj primerih predl eti, ko je tudi odločno ukrepanje državnih organov verjetno preprečilo njeno širjenje. Ksenofobičnost je resneje zakoreninjena, kar kaže tudi dejstvo, da je v preteklosti prišlo do zakonodajnih predlogov z elementi narodnostne nestrpnosti.

Skrb zbujajoči so pojavi nestrpnosti zoper Rome. Eden od razlogov zanje, ki ga je mogoče odpraviti, je pravno neurejen položaj te skupnosti.

Poseben problem je v Sloveniji nizka stopnja tolerantnosti, ko gre za razlike na področju vere in drugih naziranj, pa tudi za izražanje prepričanja nasploh. Vzgoja za človekove pravice, ki jo poudarja tudi splošna deklaracija človekovih pravic, mora biti v dobršni meri usmerjena v dopuščanje in sprejemanje drugačnosti drugega. Pomembno je dejansko upoštevanje načela, da ni dopustno storiti nič takega, kar ne želim, da se meni zgodi. Pomemben vzgojni cilj je tudi to, da ne vrednotimo doživljanja drugega po lastnih merilih, marveč skušamo razumeti njegovo lastno doživljanje, vrednote in navade.

Pravice tujcev

Posebej opozarjamo na še vedno neurejen status številnih prebivalcev Slovenije, ki so do osamosvojitve v Sloveniji imeli zakonito priznano stalno prebivališče. To jim je bilo na sporen način odvzeto, ni pa jim uspelo pridobiti nobenega statusa, predvidenega s slovensko zakonodajo. S svojimi predlogi za ureditev tega problema doslej nismo uspeli. Neurejen položaj na tem področju vpliva tudi na uresničevanje pravic otrok in je pogosto v nasprotju z načelom o združevanju družine. Izražena pripravljenost za razrešitev problema naj čimprej pripelje do ustrezne rešitve.

Svoboda gibanja

Opažali smo zlasti primere, ko osebam, ki so bile po osamosvojitvi Slovenije formalno tujci, ni bil dovoljen vstop v državo, čeprav njihovi družinski člani živijo tukaj in imajo slovensko državljanstvo. Pri zavrnitvi na meji ali zavrnitvi izdaje vizuma ni pritožbe, zato ni bilo mogoče preveriti pogosto zelo pomanjkljivo utemeljenih zadržkov izobrambnih in varnostnih razlogov. V zadnjem letu se je nekaj znanih primerov razrešilo.

Pravice otrok

Konvencija o otrokovih pravicah, ki zavezuje Slovenijo, se ne upošteva v zadostni meri v neposredni praksi tistih organov, ki odločajo o otrokovih pravicah in interesih. Za varstvo otrokovih pravic bi jo bilo mogoče neposredno uporabiti v številnih postopkih, v katerih veljavna zakonodaja ne daje dobre podlage za učinkovito ukrepanje. Konvencija izhaja iz pravic otroka, kar omogoča, da se otrok obravnava kot oseba, kot subjekt pravic in odgovornosti.

Presojanje in ugotavljanje, kaj je v otrokovo korist, je v preveliki meri subjektivno, zato arbitrarno, saj predpisi ne dajejo podrobnejših usmeritev, lastni otrokov interes pa se ne upošteva v zadostni meri ali pa ga otrok sploh ne more ustrezno uveljaviti. Zakonodaja tudi ne daje dobre podlage za hitro in učinkovito ukrepanje ob zlorabah, trpinčenju in hudem zanemarjanju otrok, zato so potrebne ustrezne spremembe družinske zakonodaje. Centri za socialno delo, ki izvajajo vrsto funkcij za varstvo otrokovih koristi, so tudi na tem področju v neprimerni dvojni vlogi, ko hkrati opravljajo strokovne socialnovarstvene in upravne naloge. Tudi zato je potrebna reorganizacija socialnega varstva, hkrati pa bo treba uvesti ustrezne oblike zastopanja in zagovorništva otrok.

Žal pa so tudi otroci žrtve dolgotrajnih in neučinkovitih postopkov, zlasti v zvezi z odločanjem o stikih s staršem, pri katerem otrok ne živi, in s plačevanjem preživnine. Zato je naš predlog za vzpostavitev preživninskega sklada utemeljen predvsem na skrbi za interese otrok v skladu s konvencijo o otrokovih pravicah.

Pravice žensk - enakopravnost moških in žensk

Kljub zagotovljeni enakopravnosti so ženske izpostavljene nekaterim nesorazmernim obremenitvam, zlasti pri skrbi za materialno varnost, vzgojo otrok in glede drugih družinskih obveznosti. Pri zaposlovanju so izpostavljene številnim težko dokazljivim pritiskom tudi v smeri odpovedovanja materinstvu. Ob tem so brez sleherne učinkovite zaščite. Niso redke tudi informacije o prikriti diskriminaciji pri zaposlovanju.

Občutljivost in odzivnost družbe za prikrito nasilje nad ženskami v družini je kljub vzpostavljenim institucionalnim in prostovoljskim mehanizmom premajhna.

Za ženske, ki so žrtve nasilja, ni celovito poskrbljeno, saj obstoječa zatočišča in materinski domovi tako po zmogljivostih kot po območni razporeditvi ne zadovoljujejo potreb. Premalo pa je tudi pomoči za ponovno osamosvojitev žensk, ki so se zatekle po pomoč pred nasiljem. K temu veliko prispeva dolgotrajnost postopkov, povezanih z delitvijo skupnega premoženja, kar je največkrat v škodo ženski, saj si kot šibkejši partner običajno ne more obdržati niti dela premoženja. Celo če sta nekdanja zakonca razpolagala s stanovanjskimi zmogljivostmi, ki bi omogočale nemoteno bivanje obeh, mora žena pogosto iskati neustrezne zasilne rešitve do zelo oddaljene sodne odločitve.

Ženske kot matere nosijo tudi največji del bremena zaradi neučinkovitosti pri izterjavi preživnine.

Očitno je tudi, da so ženske izrazito skromno zastopane na odgovornih mestih v politiki, gospodarstvu in javnih službah, čeprav jep rav ta zastopanost eden od kazalcev dejanske enakopravnosti žensk in moških. Izboljšanje položaja je zapleten proces, ki pa lahko temelji le na opuščanju nekaterih stereotipov glede spolne delitve vlog in dela.

Pravice invalidov

Pravice invalidov niso enotno in celovito urejene, kar zbuja zdaj pri tej, zdaj pri drugi kategoriji občutek neupravičene diskriminiranosti. Spodbujati bo treba tudi izboljševanje družbenega ozračja, ki naj omogoči odpravo vseh ovir, ne le arhitektonskih, za enakovredno vključevanje invalidov v življenje, skladno z njihovimi zmožnostmi in interesi. Usmeritev v tržno gospodarstvo je omejila možnosti za zaposlovanje, zato bo treba najti ustreznejše rešitve za izobraževanje in usposabljanje nekaterih kategorij invalidov.

Pravica do mirnega uživanja lastnine

V denacionalizacijskih postopkih, s katerimi država popravlja nekdanje teptanje te pravice, prihaja do prekoračitve zakonskega roka. S tem nastopi položaj, ko posameznik, ki mu po zakonu pripada vrnitev nekdaj odvzete lastnine, zaradi nezakonitosti v postopku te ne more uživati.

Varstvo te pravice je v številnih primerih pomanjkljivo tudi zaradi dolgotrajnih sodnih postopkov za varstvo iz lastnine izhajajočih pravic.

Pravice delavcev

Varstvo delavcev zaradi zakonodaje, ki ni v celoti prilagojena spremenjenim gospodarskim in političnim razmeram, in ob dolgotrajnem uveljavljanju sodnega varstva pravic ni ustrezno. Varstvo pravic je dolgotrajno in zlasti glede nezakonitega prenehanja delovnega razmerja pogosto ne izpolni svojega namena. Pomanjkljiva ureditev otežkoča ali celo onemogoča tudi varstvo z mednarodnimi akti in domačimi predpisi zagotovljenih pravic delavcev.

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Navedena opozorila, ki se nanašajo na pomanjkljivosti in probleme, niso povsem izčrpna, saj temeljijo zlasti na neposrednem delu pri obravnavi pobud. Kljub temu so lahko izhodišče za premagovanje najbolj žgočih problemov v zvezi s spoštovanjem človekovih pravic in zagotavljanjem pravne varnosti državljanov in drugih prebivalcev naše države.


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